The most important lifestyle factors for managing hypertension include:
- If you are overweight, lose weight.
- Avoid heavy alcohol use.
- If you smoke, quit.
- Eat a heart-healthy diet.
- Take your medications as ordered.
- Exercise regularly.
- Manage stress.
Losing as little as 10 pounds can help decrease your heart’s workload and lower your blood pressure. Follow the dietary and exercise plans recommended by your doctor. To lose weight, consume fewer calories than you expend. To maintain a healthy weight , balance the number of calories you consume with the number you expend.
Drinking too much alcohol increases blood pressure and can lead to other heart problems. Moderate alcohol intake, however, is not associated with high blood pressure. Moderate alcohol intake is two drinks or fewer per day for men and one drink or fewer per day for women. Talk to your doctor if you need help reducing your alcohol intake, or quitting drinking entirely.
A diet low in saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol is usually also rich in whole grains , fruits, and vegetables . All these things will help lower blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and body weight—all of which leads to a healthier heart. Follow the meal plan recommended by your doctor, or ask for a referral to a registered dietitian.
A study called Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension has found that certain healthful eating patterns can reduce blood pressure. This is called the DASH diet . Findings from the second phase of the study, called DASH-Sodium, indicate that cutting salt intake is another effective way to lower blood pressure.
If your doctor has ordered medications to lower your blood pressure, take them exactly as directed. Do not skip pills or stop taking them without the advice of your doctor. Report any side effects to your doctor.
Tell your doctor about all the mediations you take, including over-the-counter remedies and herbal supplements . Some drugs or supplements can interfere with blood pressure medications or increase your blood pressure.
Choose exercises you enjoy and will make a regular part of your day. Strive to maintain an exercise program that keeps you fit and at a healthful weight. For many people, this includes walking or participating in another aerobic activity for 30 minutes per day. Exercise also can help you manage stress. Check with your doctor before starting any exercise program.
Although stress does not cause hypertension, hormones released by your body when you are under stress can increase your blood pressure. Take time out to relax, exercise, and practice relaxation techniques.
Contact your doctor if you have any questions about recommended lifestyle changes or you need help making some of these changes in your life.
- Reviewer: Michael J. Fucci, DO
- Review Date: 09/2013 -
- Update Date: 09/30/2013 -