|The Kidney and Its Main Blood Vessels|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Atherosclerosis—the most common
- Fibromuscular dysplasia
- Fluid retention
- Shortness of breath
- Ankle swelling
- Repeat blood pressure measurements
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- X-rays with contrasting dye
- X-rays with contrast injected directly into the renal arteries
- Radioisotope imaging
- CT or MRI scans with or without injected contrast agents
National Kidney Foundation http://www.kidney.org
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases http://www2.niddk.nih.gov
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada http://www.heartandstroke.com
The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca
Balk E, Raman G, et al. Effectiveness of management strategies for renal artery stenosis: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145:901-912.
Krumme B, Donauer J. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis and reconstruction. Kidney Int. 2006;70:1543-1547.
Renal artery stenosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 14, 2013. Accessed July 16, 2013.
Zeller T. Renal artery stenosis: epidemiology, clinical manifestation, and percutaneous endovascular therapy. J Interv Cardiol. 2005;18:497-506.
- Reviewer: Adrienne Carmack, MD
- Review Date: 05/2014 -
- Update Date: 05/28/2014 -