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- Repetitive trauma or pressure on the foot
- Puncture wound on the foot
- Objects in the shoe that can damage the skin, such as a small rock
- Sores, ulcers, or blisters on the foot or lower leg
- Difficulty walking
- Discoloration in feet: black, blue, or red
- Fever, skin redness, swelling, or other signs of infection
- Blood tests
- Wound culture
- Ankle-brachial pressure
- Doppler or arteriographic studies
Blood Sugar Control
- Clean your feet daily. Dry them thoroughly, especially between the toes, before putting shoes and socks on.
- Do not wear garters and tight stockings around the legs.
- You may want to use petroleum jelly or an unscented lotion to moisturize dry, leathery feet. Do not put lotion between the toes. The extra moisture may attract bacteria.
- Inspect your feet daily. Look for sores that you may not be able to feel. Use a mirror or the assistance of another person to see all parts of your feet.
- Your doctor should look at your feet and test the feeling in them at least once a year. If you find a sore at any time, make an appointment to see your doctor right away.
- People with diabetes may have toenails that are brittle and difficult to cut. You may also want to have a foot specialist trim your toenails regularly.
- Buy properly fitted shoes. Some insurance companies will pay for custom-made shoes with inserts. A doctor can give you a prescription for the shoes.
- Avoid smoking.
- Talk to your doctor about exercise. Daily exercise will help to improve blood flow and blood sugar levels.
- Calluses can increase the pressure on the foot and lead to foot ulcers. Have your foot doctor remove any calluses. This could reduce the risk of developing a foot ulcer.
- Ask your doctor if you should use a special infrared thermometer. It can check the temperature of your feet.
- Improved control of your diabetes may reduce the risk of ulcers
American Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.org
American Podiatric Medical Association http://www.apma.org
Canadian Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.ca
Canadian Podiatric Medical Association http://www.podiatrycanada.org
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Bakker K, Apelqvist J, Schaper NC; International Working Group on Diabetic Foot Editorial Board. Practical guidelines on the management and prevention of the diabetic foot 2011. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2012;225-231.
Diabetic foot ulcer. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 30, 2014. Accessed September 18, 2014.
Frykberg RG. Diabetic foot ulcers: pathogenesis and management. Am Fam Physician. 2002;66:1655-1662.
Leung PC. Diabetic foot ulcers-a comprehensive review. Surgeon. 2007;5:219-231.
Ndip A, Bowling F, Stickings D, Rayman G, Boulton AJ. The Diabetic Foot in 2008: an update from the 12th Malvern Diabetic Foot Meeting. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2008;7:235-238.
Nelson EA, O’Meara S, Craig D, et al. A series of systematic reviews to inform a decision analysis for sampling and treating infected diabetic foot ulcers. Health Tech Assess. 2006;10.
Nelson EA, O’Meara S, Golder S, et al. Systematic review of antimicrobial treatments for diabetic foot ulcers. Diabet Med. 2006;23:348-359.
Singh N, Armstrong DG, Lipsky BA. Preventing foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. JAMA. 2005;293:217-228.
2/7/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Armstrong DG, Holtz-Neiderer K, Wendel C, Mohler MJ, Kimbriel HR, Lavery LA. Skin temperature monitoring reduces the risk for diabetic foot ulceration in high-risk patients. Am J Med. 2007;120:1042-1046.
2/7/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Lavery LA, Higgins KR, Lanctot DR, et al. Home monitoring of foot skin temperatures to prevent ulceration. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:2642-2647.
4/8/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Löndahl M, Landin-Olsson M, Katzman P. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves health-related quality of life in patients with diabetes and chronic foot ulcer. Diabet Med. 2011;28(2):186-190.
- Reviewer: Kim Carmichael, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014 -
- Update Date: 09/18/2014 -