(Chronic Renal Failure; Chronic Renal Disease; Chronic Renal Insufficiency)
|Anatomy of the Kidneys|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
|Stage||Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)|
|1||Over 90 mL/min (normal)|
|2||60 to 89 mL/min (mild decrease)|
|3||30 to 59 mL/min (moderate decrease)|
|4||15 to 29 mL/min (severe decrease)|
|5||under 15 mL/min (kidney failure or end-stage renal disease)|
- Diabetes type 1 and type 2 occur when the body doesn’t process the sugar in the blood well. The amount of sugar in the blood increases. High blood glucose damages the kidneys, the heart, blood vessels, and eyes.
- Hypertension , also known as high blood pressure, occurs when there is high pressure within the arteries of the body. Hypertension damages the kidneys. Chronic kidney disease can also cause hypertension.
- Intrinsic renal disease such as polycystic kidney disease or glomerulonephritis
- Glomerular disease leading to renal damage
- Renal tubular disorders
- Diseases of the immune system such as lupus
- Kidney stones , tumors, or in men, an enlarged prostate , causing obstructive kidney diseases
- Recurrent urinary tract infections
- Toxic exposures
- Prolonged use of medications, such as ibuprofen, aspirin, or phenacetin
- Bilateral renal artery stenosis
- Viruses: hepatitis B , hepatitis C , or HIV
- Obstructive sleep apnea
- Tubular interstitial nephritis
- High blood pressure
- Coronary heart disease and heart attacks
- High lipid levels in the blood
- Weak bones
- Anemia—low red blood cell count
- Weak immune system
About chronic kidney disease (CKD): a guide for patients and their families. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: http://www.kidney.org/kidneydisease/aboutckd.cfm. Accessed July 2, 2013.
Are you at increased risk for chronic kidney disease? National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: http://www.kidney.org/atoz/pdf/11-10-1814.pdf. Published 2010. Accessed July 2, 2013.
Chronic kidney disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 22, 2013. Accessed July 2, 2013.
Chronic kidney disease: patient information handout. American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/common/kidney/832.html. Updated November 2010. Accessed July 2, 2013.
Kidney disease basics. National Kidney Disease Education Program website. Available at: http://www.nkdep.nih.gov/patients/kidney%5Fdisease%5Finformation.htm. March 1, 2012. Accessed July 2, 2013.
National Kidney Foundation. Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) clinical practice guidelines for bone metabolism and disease in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003; 42:S1-201.
National Kidney Foundation. Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;39:S1-266.
National Kidney Foundation. Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) clinical practice guidelines on hypertension and antihypertensive agents in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2004; 43:S1-S29.
Snyder S, Pendergraph B. Detection and evaluation of chronic kidney disease. Am Fam Physicians. 2005;72:723-732.
8/10/2015 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Molnar M, Mucsi I, et al. Association of incident obstructive sleep apnoea with outcomes in a large cohort of US veterans. Thorax 2015 June 2 early online.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 05/2015 -
- Update Date: 08/10/2015 -