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- Increasing age
- Low weight
- Alcohol abuse
- History of falls
- Family history of osteoporosis
- Postmenopausal status
- Certain conditions, such as:
- Use of certain medications, such as antidepressants, long-term heparin, corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, or antacids
- Low hormone levels (low estrogen levels in women, low testosterone levels in men)
- Inactive lifestyle
- Certain restrictive diets that may result in a deficit of calcium or vitamin D
- Too little sunlight (the effect of sun on the skin is a primary source of vitamin D)
- Certain cancers, including lymphoma and multiple myeloma
- Severe back pain with fracture of the vertebrae, wrists, hips, or other bones
- Loss of height with stooped posture, a condition called kyphosis
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- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- Central (preferred) or peripheral dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)
- Quantitative ultrasound (QUS)
- Central or peripheral quantitative CT scan (QCT)
- Dairy products
- Green leafy vegetables
- Canned fish with bones
- Calcium-fortified products
- Floors—Remove all loose wires, cords, and throw rugs. Minimize clutter. Make sure rugs are anchored and smooth. Keep furniture in its accustomed place.
- Bathrooms—Install grab bars and non-skid tape in the tub or shower.
- Lighting—Make sure halls, stairways, and entrances are well lit. Install a night light in your bathroom. Turn lights on if you get up in the middle of the night.
- Kitchen—Install non-skid rubber mats near sink and stove. Clean spills immediately.
- Stairs—Make sure treads, rails, and rugs are secure.
- Other precautions—Wear sturdy, rubber-soled shoes. Keep your intake of alcoholic beverages to a minimum. Ask your doctor whether any of your medications might cause you to fall.
- Medications with estrogenic effects
- Other medications
- Eat a balanced diet rich in calcium and vitamin D
- Perform weight-bearing exercise
- Live a healthy lifestyle (no smoking, drink alcohol only in moderation)
- If you are a postmenopausal woman at high risk for bone fractures, medications may be appropriate to prevent osteoporosis
NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center http://www.niams.nih.gov
National Osteoporosis Foundation http://www.nof.org
Osteoporosis Canada www.osteoporosis.ca
Women's Health Matters http://www.womenshealthmatters.ca
Clinician's guide to prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. National Osteoporosis Foundation website. Available at: http://www.nof.org/files/nof/public/content/file/950/upload/523.pdf . Updated 2013. Accessed July 22, 2013.
Ho-Pham LT, Nguyen ND, et al. Effect of vegetarian diets on bone mineral density: a Bayesian meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr . 2009;90:943-950.
Khosla L, Melton LJ. Clinical practice: osteopenia. N Engl J Med . 2007;356:2293-2300.
Making a diagnosis. National Osteoporosis Foundation website. Available at: http://nof.org/articles/8 . Accessed July 22, 2013.
Osteoporosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated July 15, 2013. Accessed July 22, 2013.
Sambrook P, Cooper C. Osteoporosis. Lancet . 2006;367:2010-2018.
10/6/2006 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Cockayne S, Adamson J, Lanham-New S, et al. Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med . 2006;166:1256-1261.
5/16/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Qaseem A, Snow V, Shekelle P, Hopkins R Jr, Forciea MA, Owens DK; Clinical Efficacy Assessment Subcommittee of the American College of Physicians. Screening for osteoporosis in men: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med . 2008;148:680-684.
1/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Loke YK, Singh S, Furberg CD. Long-term use of thiazolidinediones and fractures in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. CMAJ . 2009;180:32-39. Epub 2008 Dec 10.
12/29/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C. Predicting risk of osteoporotic fracture in men and women in England and Wales: prospective derivation and validation of QFractureScores. BMJ . 2009;339:b4229.
6/4/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : FDA approves new injectable osteoporosis treatment for postmenopausal women. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm214150.htm . Updated April 23, 2013. Accessed July 22, 2013.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 06/2013 -
- Update Date: 06/07/2013 -