|A chemical imbalance in the brain may be responsible for ODD.|
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- A parent with a mood, conduct, attention deficit, or substance abuse disorder
- Marital conflict
- Child abuse
- Inconsistent parental attention
- Low socioeconomic status
- Argue with adults
- Lose their tempers
- Refuse to follow adults' requests or rules
- Deliberately annoy others and are annoyed by others
- Are angry and resentful
- Are spiteful or vindictive
- Blame others for their own mistakes
- Have low self-esteem
- Child displays at least 4 common symptoms.
- Symptoms occur more often and have more serious consequences than is typical in children of a similar age.
- Symptoms lead to significant problems in school, work, or social life.
- Symptoms are continuously present for at least 6 months.
Social Skills Training
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry http://www.aacap.org
American Psychiatric Association http://www.psych.org
Canadian Psychiatric Association http://www.cpa-apc.org
Canadian Psychological Association http://www.cpa.ca
Children with oppositional defiant disorder. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry website. Available at: http://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Families%5Fand%5FYouth/Facts%5Ffor%5FFamilies/Facts%5Ffor%5FFamilies%5FPages/Children%5FWith%5FOppositional%5FDefiant%5FDisorder%5F72.aspx. Accessed July 17, 2013.
Oppositional defiant disorder in children. Boston Children's Hospital website. Available at: http://www.childrenshospital.org/conditions-and-treatments/conditions/oppositional-defiant-disorder. Accessed July 17, 2013.
Oppositional defiant disorder. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 7, 2012. Accessed July 17, 2013.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 06/2015 -
- Update Date: 05/11/2013 -