- An abnormal neurotransmitter system
- Environmental factors
- Developmental factors
- Psychological factors
- Family members with an anxiety disorder
- Increase in stress
- Exposure to physical or emotional trauma
- Unemployment, poverty
- Drug abuse
- Medical condition or disability
- History of self-harm as a teenager, with or without suicidal intent
- Excessive ongoing worrying and tension
- Feeling tense or edgy
- Irritability, overly stressed
- Difficulty concentrating, forgetfulness
- Muscle tension
- Difficulty sleeping
- Shortness of breath
- Heart palpitations
- Chest pain
- Choking sensation
- Abdominal discomfort
- Numbness or tingling
|Symptoms of Anxiety|
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- Be present more days than not
- Be present for at least six months
- Interfere with your life such as causing you to miss work or school
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
—to relax your body and keep it from tensing in response to anxious thoughts
- Note: These medications need to be monitored closely because they may cause dependence.
- Buspirone—an anti-anxiety medication that does not cause dependence
- Antidepressant medications such as selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs)—to help control anxious thoughts
- Learn relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation, and yoga.
- Avoid tobacco, caffeine, and drugs. These can worsen anxiety.
- Exercise on a regular basis.
- Get an appropriate amount of sleep each night.
- Identify stressful situations. Avoid them when possible.
- If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation.
Anxiety and Depression Association of America http://www.adaa.org
Mental Health America http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net
Canadian Psychiatric Association http://www.cpa-apc.org
Canadian Psychological Association http://www.cpa.ca
Antidepressant use in children, adolescents, and adults. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/InformationbyDrugClass/UCM096273. Published August 12, 2010. Accessed November 11, 2014.
Anxiety disorders. Mental Health America website. Available at: http://www.nmha.org/conditions/anxiety-disorders. Accessed November 11, 2014.
Generalized anxiety disorder. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 29, 2014. Accessed November 11, 2014.
Generalized anxiety disorder. American Academy of Family Physicians' FamilyDoctor website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/generalized-anxiety-disorder/treatment.html. Updated March 2014. Accessed November 11, 2014.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). National Institute of Mental Health website. Available at: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/generalized-anxiety-disorder-gad/index.shtml. Accessed November 11, 2014.
Gliatto MF. Generalized anxiety disorder. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Oct 1;62(7):1591-1600. Available at: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20001001/1591.html. Accessed November 11, 2014.
9/12/2012 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Li AW, Goldsmith CA. The effects of yoga on anxiety and stress. Altern Med Rev. 2012;17(1):21-35.
11/6/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Mars B, Heron J, et al. Clinical and social outcomes of adolescent self harm: Population based birth cohort study. 2014;349:g5954.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 12/2014 -
- Update Date: 12/20/2014 -