- Bacterial infection —the most common cause
- Viral or fungal infection
- Medical conditions that result in blood clotting too easily, causing a noninfectious form
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- Having an artificial heart valve
- History of endocarditis
- History of rheumatic fever , which can damage heart valves
- Heart defects
- Enlarged heart
- Mitral valve prolapse
- History of IV drug use
- Recent procedures that can lead to bacterial endocarditis , including:
- Fever, chills
- Weakness, low energy
- Sweatiness, especially at night
- Shortness of breath
- Loss of appetite, weight loss
- Chest pain
- Abdominal pain
- Nausea and vomiting
- Painful red bumps on the fingers and toes
- Purple dots on the whites of the eyes, under the fingernails, and over the collarbone
- Painful red patches on the fingers, palms, and soles
- Blood tests
- Antibiotics—given by IV for up to 4-8 weeks
- Surgery—to repair or replace the valve if it is severely damaged or has caused heart failure
- You may need to take antibiotics before certain dental or medical procedures.
- Talk to your dentist or doctor before the procedure.
- Various forms of congenital heart defects
- Artificial heart valves
- History of endocarditis
- Heart transplant recipients who have developed valve disease
American Heart Association http://www.heart.org
Mouth Healthy—American Dental Association http://www.mouthhealthy.org
Canadian Dental Association http://www.cda-adc.ca
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada http://www.heartandstroke.com
Braunwald E, Zipes DP, Libby P, et al. Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Company; 2001.
Cecil RL, Goldman L, Bennett JC. Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Company; 2000.
Conn HF, Rakel RE, et al. Conn's Current Therapy 2001: latest approved methods of treatment for the practicing physician. 53rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Company; 2001.
Infective endocarditis. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/TheImpactofCongenitalHeartDefects/Infective-Endocarditis%5FUCM%5F307108%5FArticle.jsp. Updated March 20, 2013. Accessed March 20, 2013.
Infective endocarditis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 5, 2012. Accessed March 20, 2013.
DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Wilson W, Taubert KA, et al. Prevention of infective endocarditis. Guidelines from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2007;116(15):1736-1754.
- Reviewer: Michael J. Fucci, DO
- Review Date: 12/2014 -
- Update Date: 12/20/2014 -