(Autism Spectrum Disorders; Pervasive Developmental Disorders)
- Autism seems to run in some families. Several genes may be involved.
- Problems during pregnancy or delivery may interfere with normal brain development.
- Something in the environment that a child is exposed to may be a factor.
- Sex: male
- Family history: siblings of a child with autism are at higher risk
- Having parents who are older
- Problems during pregnancy or delivery
- Mother with rubella during pregnancy
- Epilepsy —especially when diagnosed under age 2 years
- A number of other conditions are related to autism, although the relationship between them is not clear:
|The Conditions Above Primarily Affect the Central Nervous System|
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- Avoiding social contact
- Having problems with language such as loss of language
- Using words incorrectly
- Communicating with motions instead of words
- Avoiding eye contact
- Having trouble with nonverbal communication
- Lacking interest in normal activities for that age
- Spending a lot of time alone
- Not playing imaginatively
- Not starting pretend games
- Not imitating others
- Having sensitivity to sound, smell, taste, sights, and touch
- Reacting to stimulation in an abnormal way
- Not reacting to smiles
- Delayed motor skill development
- Being hyperactive
- Being passive
- Having tantrums
- Being single-minded
- Being aggressive
- Hurting self
- Repetitive movement, such as rocking or flapping a hand
- Resisting change
- Forming unusual attachments to objects
- Sniffing or licking of toys
- Not understanding other peoples' feelings and needs
- Being a picky eater
- Having gastrointestinal problems, such as diarrhea, constipation, or frequent abdominal pain
- Intellectual disability
- Genetic disorders, such as fragile X syndrome
- Neuropsychological tests
- Questionnaires and observation schedules
- Intelligence tests
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- DNA testing
Applied Behavioral Analysis
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov
The Autism Society http://www.autism-society.org
Autism Canada Foundation http://www.autismcanada.org
Autism Society Canada http://www.autismsocietycanada.ca
Autism 101: a free online course. The Autism Society website. Available at: http://support.autism-society.org/site/PageServer?pagename=about%5Fcourse. Accessed May 14, 2013.
Autism fact sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/autism/detail%5Fautism.htm. Updated May 7, 2013. Accessed May 14, 2013.
Autism spectrum disorders. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 6, 2013. Accessed May 14, 2013.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/index.html. Updated August 7, 2012. Accessed May 14, 2013.
Autism spectrum disorders (pervasive developmental disorders). National Institute of Mental Health website. Available at: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/autism-spectrum-disorders-pervasive-developmental-disorders/index.shtml. Updated May 14, 2013. Accessed May 14, 2013.
Dawson G, Rogers S, Munson J, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: the early start Denver model. Pediatrics. 2009 Nov 30.
Rapin I. An 8-year-old boy with autism. JAMA. 2001;285:1749-1757.
Sykes NH, Lamb JA. Autism the quest for genes. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2007;9:1-15.
10/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Ibrahim S, Voigt R, Katusic S, Weaver A, Barbaresi W. Incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autism: a population-based study. Pediatrics. 2009;124(2):680.
12/31/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Rice C. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders—Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, United States, 2006. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2009;58(SS10):1.
11/11/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Chaidez V, Hansen RL, et al. Gastrointestinal problems in children with autism, developmental delays, or typical development. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013 Nov 6.
5/12/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: MacDonald M, Lord C, et al. The relationship of motor skills and social communicative skills in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder. APAQ. 2013 July. 30, 271-282. Available at: http://journals.humankinetics.com/AcuCustom/Sitename/Documents/DocumentItem/04MacDonald.pdf. Accessed May 12, 2014.
8/19/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Reilly C, Atkinson P, et al. Neurobehavioral comorbidities in children with active epilepsy: a population-based study. Pediatrics. 2014;133(6):e1586-1593.
- Reviewer: Kari Kassir, MD
- Review Date: 03/2014 -
- Update Date: 08/19/2014 -