|The Lungs (Cut-away View)|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Fluid in or around the lungs
- Blockage of airways in the lungs due to tumors, mucus, or a foreign object
- Compression, resulting from emphysema , an enlarged heart, or a tumor
- Restricted chest movement, due to bone or muscle problems, or recent abdominal surgery
- Scarring, as a result of radiation therapy , frequent infections, or disease
- Pneumothorax (leakage of air into the space surrounding the lungs)
- Lung immaturity in premature babies
- Increased age
- Premature birth
- Lung diseases, such as:
- Weakened respiratory muscles
- Congestive heart failure
- Conditions that limit physical activity such as stroke , spinal cord injury, heart problems, trauma , or severe illness of any kind
- Anesthesia , especially in patients who are obese or smoke
- Injury to the chest wall
- Rapid breathing
- Shortness of breath
- Taking shallow breaths
- Decreased chest movement during breathing
- Mild fever
- Rapid heart rate
- Chest pain
- Blueness of the lips or nails
- Breathing masks or treatments to help keep your airways open
- Incentive spirometry to help you learn to take deeper breaths
- Suction to help remove secretions
- A breathing machine, called a ventilator, if you are unable to breathe adequately on your own
- Drugs to open the airways
- Drugs to treat the disease that caused the collapse
- Antibiotics to treat an infection
- Cardiac drugs to control heart disease
- Inhalers and other drugs to manage asthma or emphysema
- Oxygen, if you are having trouble breathing
- If you smoke, stop.
- If you are obese, lose weight.
- If you have a chronic lung or heart condition, follow your doctor's advice to manage the disease and limit complications.
- After surgery, follow instructions for deep breathing, coughing, and turning. Ask for pain medication if discomfort is limiting movement or coughing.
American Lung Association http://www.lungusa.org/
National Heart Lung and Blood Institute http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/
The Canadian Lung Association http://www.lung.ca/
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Behrman RE, et al. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 18th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2007.
Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Textbook of Internal Medicine . 23rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2008.
Mason, RJ et al. Murray & Nadel’s Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2007.
- Reviewer: Brian Randall, MD
- Review Date: 11/2012 -
- Update Date: 11/26/2012 -