|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
Sudden twisting of the ankle, such as:
- Stepping on an uneven surface or in a hole
- Taking an awkward step when running, jumping, or stepping up or down
- Having your ankle roll over when playing sports or exercising—called inversion of the foot
- Playing sports, especially with the wrong type of shoe
- Walking on uneven surfaces
- Weak ankles from a previous sprain
- Poor coordination
- Poor balance
- Poor muscle strength and tight ligaments
- Loose joints
- Certain footwear, such as high heels
- Pain, swelling, and bruising around the ankle
- Worsening of pain when walking, standing, pressing on the sore area, or moving the ankle inward
- An inability to move the ankle joint without pain
- A popping or tearing sound at the time of the injury
- Inability to move the ankle without significant pain
- Inability to put any weight on that foot
- Significant swelling or bruising
- Pain over a bony part of your foot or ankle
- Pain that interferes significantly with walking
- Pain not relieved by ice, pain relief medication, and elevation
- Numbness in the leg, foot, or ankle
- Pain that does not improve in 5-7 days
- Uncertainty about the severity of the injury
- Uncertainty about how to care for this injury
- Some minor tearing of ligament tissue
- Ankle remains stable
- Partial tearing of ligament tissue
- Mild instability of the joint
- Usually involves damage to 2 ankle ligaments
- Complete tearing of 2 or 3 of the ligaments
- Significant instability of the joint
- Rest—Activities may need to be restricted. Normal activities will be gradually reintroduced as the injury heals.
- Ice—Ice therapy may help relieve swelling.
- Compression—Compression bandages can provide gentle pressure to help move fluids out of the area.
- Elevation—Keeping the ankle elevated can help fluids drain out or prevent fluids from building up.
- Protection—A brace or walking boot may be advised to prevent the ankle from moving as it heals. A short leg cast may be advised in severe cases, but this is rare.
- Take a break from sports or exercise when you feel tired.
- Do exercises that improve your balance and strengthen leg and foot muscles.
- Learn the proper technique for exercise and sporting activities. This will decrease stress on all your muscles, ligaments, and tendons, including those around your ankle.
- If you have injured your ankle before, you are more likely to injure it again. You may reduce your risk of repeated sprains by wearing an ankle brace.
- Wear appropriate footwear when playing sports to avoid injury.
American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine http://www.sportsmed.org
OrthoInfo—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons http://orthoinfo.aaos.org
Canadian Orthopaedic Association http://www.coa-aco.org
Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation http://www.canorth.org
Ankle sprain. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 30, 2015. Accessed March 3, 2015.
Kemler E, van de Port I, et al. A systematic review on the treatment of acute ankle sprain: brace versus other functional treatment types. Sports Med. 2011;41(3):185-197.
Kerkhoffs GM, Handoll HH, et al. Surgical versus conservative treatment for acute injuries of the lateral ligament complex of the ankle in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18;(2):CD000380.
Sprained ankle. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00150. Updated September 2012. Accessed March 3, 2015.
Sprains and strains. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health%5FInfo/Sprains%5FStrains/default.asp. Published July 2012. Accessed March 3, 2015.
10/26/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Massey T, Derry S, Moore R, McQuay H. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(6):CD007402.
11/19/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed : van Rijn RM, van Ochten J, Luijsterburg PA, van Middelkoop M, Koes BW, Bierma-Zeinstra SM. Effectiveness of additional supervised exercises compared with conventional treatment alone in patients with acute lateral ankle sprains: systematic review. BMJ. 2010;341:c5688.
9/10/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Mosher TJ, Kransdorf MJ, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria acute trauma to the ankle online publication]. Reston (VA): American College of Radiology (ACR);2014. 10 p. Available at: http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=48284#Section420. Accessed March 3, 2015.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 03/2015 -
- Update Date: 02/06/2015 -