Risk Factors for Women
- Menopause—Natural or surgical menopause increases your risk of osteoporosis. The risk of fracture increases significantly after menopause.
- Amenorrhea (cessation of menstruation before menopause)—Your risk of osteoporosis increases if you miss menstrual periods for three months or longer. Amenorrhea may occur with eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia, or with excessive or intensive exercise, such as long distance running.
Risk Factors for Men
- Advanced age
- Treatment for prostate cancer, which lowers testosterone levels
- Hypogonadism, a severe deficiency in the male sex hormone
Risk Factors in Both Sexes
- Medications to suppress the immune system
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
- Antiseizure medications
- Medications containing aluminum, such as antacids
- Proton pump inhibitors
- Long-term heparin therapy
- Glitazones, medications to treat diabetes
- Liver disease, such as cirrhosis
- Celiac disease
- Ulcerative colitis
- Crohn's disease
- Gastric bypass surgery
- Eating disorders, such as anorexia, or bulimia
Diseases and conditions that may cause bone loss. National Osteoporosis Foundation website. Available at http://www.nof.org/articles/5. Accessed July 16, 2013.
Ho-Pham LT, Nguyen ND, Nguyen TV. Effect of vegetarian diets on bone mineral density: a Bayesian meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:943-950.
Medicines that may cause bone loss. National Osteoporosis Foundation website. Available at http://www.nof.org/articles/6. Accessed July 16, 2013.
Osteoporosis. NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center website. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health%5FInfo/Bone/Osteoporosis/default.asp. Accessed July 16, 2013.
Osteoporosis causes and risk factors. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated June 4, 2013. Accessed July 16, 2013.
The man's guide to osteoporosis. National Osteoporosis Foundation website. Available at http://www.nof.org/files/nof/public/content/file/252/upload/85.pdf. Accessed July 16, 2013.
What women need to know. National Osteoporosis Foundation website. Available at: http://www.nof.org/articles/235. Accessed July 16, 2013.
1/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Loke YK, Singh S, et al. Long-term use of thiazolidinediones and fractures in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2009;180:32-39.
1/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Carbone LD, Johnson KC, et al. Loop diuretic use and fracture in postmenopausal women: findings from the Women's Health Initiative. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:132-140.
12/29/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C. Predicting risk of osteoporotic fracture in men and women in England and Wales: prospective derivation and validation of QFractureScores. BMJ. 2009;339:b4229.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 05/2014 -
- Update Date: 01/12/2015 -