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- Viruses carried by mosquitoes such as West Nile or Eastern equine encephalitis
- Herpes simplex virus (HSV)
- Chickenpox virus
- Influenza virus
- Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
- Polio virus
- Measles virus
- Mumps virus
- Living, working, or playing in an area where mosquito- or tick-borne viruses are common.
Not being immunized against diseases, such as:
- A suppressed immune system caused by certain medications, or health conditions, such as HIV infection
- Having cancer—sometimes immune system overactivity may be the first sign of cancer
- Weakness, severe fatigue
- Sensitivity to light
- Stiff neck and back
- Muscle aches
- Changes in consciousness
- Personality changes
- Loss of mobility
- Progressive drowsiness
- Trouble walking
- Trouble speaking
- Trouble swallowing
- Blood tests
- Lumbar puncture to test the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord
- Brain biopsy
- Antiviral drugs to shorten the duration of the illness
- Steroids to reduce brain inflammation
- Diuretics to decrease elevated intracranial pressure
- Intubation with hyperventilation to decrease elevated intracranial pressure, and to maintain respiration and ventilation
- Anticonvulsants to prevent and/or treat seizures
- Make sure that you and your children are vaccinated against preventable viral illnesses
Protect yourself from mosquito bites:
- Fix window screens.
- Drain standing water around your home.
- Wear long clothes after dark.
- Use repellent when you are outside.
- Use proper mosquito netting at night. Look for netting treated with insecticide.
The Encephalitis Society http://www.encephalitis.info
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke http://www.ninds.nih.gov
Canadian Neurological Sciences Federation http://www.cnsfederation.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Herpes simplex encephalitis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 1, 2013. Accessed September 23, 2014.
Eastern equine encephalitis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 23, 2014. Accessed September 23, 2014.
Mann AP, Grebenciucova E, Lukas RV. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor encephalitis: diagnosis, optimal management, and challenges. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2014;10:517-525.
Nicholas MK, Lukas R, van Besein K. Youmans Textbook of Neurological Surgery, 6th Edition. Section II: General Neurosurgery. Chapter 46. AIDS. 2011.
NINDS meningitis and encephalitis information page. National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/encephalitis%5Fmeningitis/encephalitis%5Fmeningitis.htm. Updated April 16, 2014. Accessed September 23, 2014.
West Nile virus infection. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 23, 2014. Accessed September 23, 2014.
10/1/2013 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Reimer LJ, Thomsen EK, Tisch DJ, et al. Insecticidal bed nets and filariasis transmission in Papua New Guinea. N Eng J Med. 2013;369(8):745-753.
- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD
- Review Date: 08/2015 -
- Update Date: 09/23/2014 -