Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Herbs and Supplements to Avoid
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3 Lewis DP, Van Dyke DC, Stumbo PJ, et al. Drug and environmental factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Part I: Antiepileptic drugs, contraceptives, smoking, and folate. Ann Pharmacother . 1998;32:802–817.
4 Schectman G, Byrd JC, Hoffman R. Ascorbic acid requirements for smokers: analysis of a population survey. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1466–1470.
5 Tribble DL, Giuliano LJ, Fortman SP. Reduced plasma ascorbic acid concentrations in non-smokers regularly exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Am J Clin Nutr . 1993;58:886–890.
6 Frei B, Forte TM, Ames BN, et al. Gas phase oxidants of cigarette smoke induce lipid peroxidation and changes in lipoprotein properties in human blood plasma. Protective effects of ascorbic acid. Biochem J. 1991;277:133–138.
7 Lykkesfeldt J, Loft S, Nielsen JB, et al. Ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid as biomarkers of oxidative stress caused by smoking. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65:959–963.
8 Schectman G. Estimating ascorbic acid requirements for cigarette smokers. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1993;686:335–346.
9 Mezzetti A, Lapenna D, Pierdomenico SD, et al. Vitamins E, C and lipid peroxidation in plasma and arterial tissue of smokers and non-smoker. Atherosclerosis. 1995;112:97–99.
10 Handelman GJ, Packer L, Cross CE. Destruction of tocopherols, carotenoids, and retinol in human plasma by cigarette smoke. Am J Clin Nutr . 1996;63:559–565.
11 Driskell JA, Griaud DW, Sun J, et al. Plasma concentrations of caroteniods and tocopherols in male long-term tobacco chewers, smokers and non-users. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1996;66:203–209.
12 Ross MA, Crosley LK, Brown KM, et al. Plasma concentrations of carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins in Scottish males: influences of smoking. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995;49:861–865.
13 O'Neill ME, McLoone UJ, Chopra M, et al. Plasma lutein, lycopene and beta-carotene levels in smokers and non-smokers following vegetable supplements [abstract]. Proc Nutr Soc . 1995;54:170A.
14 Rao AV, Agarwal S. Effect of diet and smoking on serum lycopene and lipid peroxidation. Nutr Res. 1998;18:713–721.
15 Leng GC, Horrobin DF, Fowkes FG, et al. Plasma essential fatty acids, cigarette smoking, and dietary antioxidants in peripheral arterial disease. A population-based case-control study. Arterioscler Thromb. 1994;14:471–478.
16 Sulsky SI, Jacques PF, Jacob RA, et al. Nutritional status of elderly smokers and non-smokers. J Nutr Med. 1990;1:187–194.
17 Heinonen OP, Albanes D, Virtamo J, et al. Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst . 1998;90:440–446.
18 Albanes D, Heinonen OP, Huttunen JK, et al. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on cancer incidence in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62(suppl):1427S–1430S.
19 Rapola JM, Virtamo J, Haukka JK, et al. Effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of angina pectoris. A randomized, double-blind controlled trial. JAMA . 1996;275:693–698.
20 Mangoni AA, Sherwood RA, Swift CG, et al. Folic acid enhances endothelial function and reduces blood pressure in smokers: a randomized controlled trial. J Intern Med . 2002;252:497–503.
21 Raitakari OT, Adams MR, McCredie RJ, et al. Oral vitamin C and endothelial function in smokers: short-term improvement, but no sustained beneficial effect. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;35:1616–1621.
22 Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, et al. Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med . 1996;334:1150–1155.
23 Rapola JM, Virtamo J, Ripatti S, et al. Randomised trial of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on incidence of major coronary events in men with previous myocardial infarction. Lancet. 1997;349:1715–1720.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 08/2013 -
- Update Date: 08/22/2013 -