- Short stature—If the disorder is not treated, the average adult is about 4 feet 8 inches tall.
- Lack of development of the ovaries—The ovaries are the organs that produce eggs for fertilization and female hormones. Most girls with Turner syndrome do not start puberty. Many do not have normal breast development or menstrual periods. Most cannot produce eggs and are infertile.
|Fully Developed Female Reproductive System|
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- Webbed neck
- Low hairline in back
- Abnormal eye features—drooping of eyelids
- Abnormal bone development, for example a shield-shaped, broad, flat chest
- Absent or delayed development of secondary sexual characteristics that normally appear at puberty, including sparse pubic hair and small breasts
- Decreased tearing
- Absent menstruation
- A single crease in the palm
- Absence of normal moisture in vagina
- Painful intercourse
- Flat feet
- Swelling of the hands and feet—mostly noted at time of birth
- High blood pressure, even in childhood
- Structural heart abnormalities
- Kidney problems
- Thyroid problems
- Osteoporosis , which can lead to height loss, curved spine, and broken bones
- Hearing and other ear problems
- Impaired sense of visual coordination despite normal intelligence
- Celiac disease
- Increased risk for cancer
Estrogen Replacement Therapy
Treatment for Other Medical Conditions
- Kidney abnormalities
- High blood pressure
- Hashimoto's thyroiditis
- Cardiac evaluation including both echocardiography and MR angiography should be performed.
- Puberty should be induced at an age-appropriate time and should not be delayed in hopes of achieving greater adult height.
- Comprehensive psychological evaluation should be done to detect learning disorders.
- Lifetime surveillance should be carried out looking for hearing problems, thyroid disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and cholesterol elevation.
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics http://www.healthychildren.org
Turner Syndrome Society of the United States http://www.turnersyndrome.org
Caring for Kids—Canadian Paediatric Society http://www.caringforkids.cps.ca
Turner's Syndrome Society of Canada http://www.turnersyndrome.ca
Bondy C, Turner Syndrome Study Group. Care of girls and women with Turner syndrome: a guideline of the Turner syndrome study group. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(1):10-25.
Hahn SB, Park HW, Park HJ, Seo YJ, Kim HW. Lower limb lengthening in Turner dwarfism. Yonsei Med J. 2000;44(3):502-507.
Turner syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 24, 2013. Accessed July 24, 2013.
Turner syndrome. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development website. Available at: http://turners.nichd.nih.gov. Accessed July 24, 2013.
Turner syndrome. Nemours Kids Health website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/sexual/turner.html. Updated September 2011. Accessed July 24, 2013.
- Reviewer: Kari Kassir, MD
- Review Date: 06/2015 -
- Update Date: 05/11/2013 -