(Syndrome X; Insulin Resistance Syndrome; Dysmetabolic Syndrome)
- Central obesity—high amount of fat around the waist
- Low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL or good) cholesterol
- High levels of triglycerides—type of fat measured in the blood
- Elevated blood pressure
- Elevated fasting glucose level due to lower sensitivity to insulin
|Coronary Artery Disease|
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- Genetic factors
- Lack of physical activity
- Poor diet
- Having disorders or conditions associated with metabolic disorder such as:
- History of gestational diabetes
- Family history of the disorders listed above
- Physical inactivity
- Poor diet
- Unhealthy habits, such as smoking
- Certain medications, such as atypical antipsychotics
- Frequent urination, and excessive thirst and hunger due to high blood sugars
- Dark, velvety skin discoloration seen with obesity
- Waist measurement—greater than 40 inches in Caucasian men (35 inches in Asian men) or 35 inches in Caucasian women (30 inches in Asian women)
- At least 2 of the following:
- Fasting glucose level—greater than or equal to 100 mg/dL* (5.55 mmol/L)
- Triglyceride level—greater than or equal to 150 mg/dL (1.7 mmol/L)
- HDL cholesterol—less than 40 mg/dL (1.0 mmol/L) in men and less than 50 mg/dL (1.3 mmol/L) in women
- Blood pressure—greater than or equal to 130/85 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)
- Treatment of underlying causes, usually by diet and exercise
- Treatment of specific metabolic abnormality
Treatment of Underlying Causes
- Reducing excess weight by at least 10% in the next 6-12 months
- Increasing physical activity to 30-60 minutes of moderate aerobic exercise four or more days per week as approved by your doctor
- Lowering blood pressure to below 130/85 mmHg with diet, exercise, and possibly medication
- Improving triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels through diet, exercise, and possibly medication
Treatment of Specific Metabolic Abnormality
- High blood pressure—treated with anti-hypertensive medication and lifestyle changes
- Insulin resistance—treated with diabetes medications and lifestyle changes
- High cholesterol—treated with cholesterol-lowering medications called statins and lifestyle changes
- Clotting tendency—treated with low-dose aspirin , especially in those with moderate to high cardiovascular risk
- If you smoke, talk to your doctor about how to successfully quit.
- Achieve and maintain a healthy weight by eating fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
- Talk to your doctor how to increase your intake of specific minerals, such as magnesium.
- Work up to 30 minutes of moderate aerobic exercise most days of the week.
- Drink alcohol in moderation. This means no more than 2 drinks daily for men, 1 drink daily for women.
American Heart Association http://www.heart.org
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases http://www.niddk.nih.gov
Canadian Cardiovascular Society http://www.ccs.ca
Canadian Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.ca
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Explore metabolic syndrome. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/ms. Updated November 3, 2011. Accessed June 4, 2014.
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Metabolic syndrome. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/MetabolicSyndrome/Metabolic-Syndrome%5FUCM%5F002080%5FSubHomePage.jsp. Accessed June 4, 2014.
Metabolic syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 29, 2013. Accessed June 4, 2014.
Wright JT, Harris-Haywood S, et al. Clinical outcomes by race in hypertensive patients with and without the metabolic syndrome (ALLHAT). Arch Int Med. 2008;168:207-217.
1/13/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Salas-Salvadó J, Fernández-Ballart J, et al. Effect of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts on metabolic syndrome status: one-year results of the PREDIMED randomized trial. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168:2449-2458.
2/17/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Davidson LE, Hudson R, et al. Effects of exercise modality on insulin resistance and functional limitation in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:122-131.
5/11/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Nettleton JA, Lutsey PL, et al. Diet soda intake and risk of incident metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Diabetes Care. 2009;32:688-694.
1/22/2015 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Xu Y, Shen S, et al. Metabolic syndrome risk after gestational diabetes: Asystematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e87863.
7/15/2015 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Dibaba DT, Xun P, Fly AD, Yokota K, He K. Dietary magnesium intake and risk of metabolic syndrome: A meta-analysis. Diabet Med. 2014;31(11):1301-1309.
- Reviewer: Kim Carmichael, MD
- Review Date: 02/2015 -
- Update Date: 07/15/2015 -