(GERD—Child; Chronic Heartburn—Child; Reflux Esophagitis—Child; Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease—Child; GORD—Child; Heartburn—Child; Reflux—Child)
|Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease|
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- Problems with the nerves that make the valve open or close
- Increased pressure in the stomach
- Irritation in the stomach or muscles of the valve
- Problem with the valve itself
- Premature birth
- Parents with a history of heartburn or acid regurgitation
- Down syndrome
- Neurological impairments such as intellectual disabilities
- Cerebral palsy
- Head injury
- Hiatal hernia
- Food allergies
- Certain medications
- Exposure to tobacco smoke
- Narrow or short esophagus
- Delayed emptying of the stomach
- Regurgitation or vomiting
- Green or yellow-green vomit
- Bloody vomit
- Weight loss or poor weight gain
- Difficulty swallowing
- Pain in the abdomen or chest
- Frequent pneumonia or respiratory problems
- Cough or wheezing
- Dental problems due to the effect of the stomach acid on the tooth's enamel
- Feeling full almost immediately after eating
- Chronic heartburn
- Images may need to be taken of your stomach and esophagus. This can be done with an upper GI series .
- Tests may be done of your bodily tissues. This can be done with an upper endoscopy with biopsy.
- 24-hour pH monitoring—a probe is placed in the esophagus to measure the level of acid
- Short trial of medications—the doctor may use the success or failure of a medication to understand the cause
Your child's doctor may suggest making lifestyle changes before trying medication. These changes may include:
- Eating small, frequent meals
- Avoid eating 2-3 hours before bedtime
- Raising the head of your child’s bed
- Having your child lie on their left side when sleeping
Your child may need to avoid certain foods, such as:
- Fried foods
- Spicy foods
- Caffeine products
- Carbonated beverages
- Foods high in fat and acid
- If your child is obese, your doctor may recommend weight loss.
- Avoid exposing your child to second hand smoke.
- Histamine-2 receptor drugs—to decrease acid production and promote healing
- Proton pump inhibitors—also decreases acid production and promote healing
- Promotility drugs—to help stomach emptying, not used often
- Following recommended lifestyle and dietary changes if your child had GER
- Avoiding second-hand smoke
GI Kids—North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition http://www.gikids.org
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases http://www.niddk.nih.gov
Canadian Digestive Health Foundation http://www.cdhf.ca
About Kids Health—The Hospital for Sick Children http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children and adolescents. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/digestive-diseases/ger-and-gerd-in-children-and-adolescents/Pages/facts.aspx. Updated August 2006. Accessed May 10, 2013.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 9, 2013. Accessed May 10, 2013.
Pediatric GE reflux clinical practice guidelines. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2001;32:S1-S31.
Treating GERD. Ohio State University Medical Center website. Available at: http://wexnermedical.osu.edu/patient-care/healthcare-services/digestive-diseases/heartburn. Accessed May 10, 2013.
3/1/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Maalox Total Relief and Maalox liquid products: Medication use errors. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm200672.htm. Published February 17, 2010. Accessed May 10, 2013.
5/12/2015 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: recognition, diagnosis and management in children and young people. London (UK): National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE); 2015 Jan 14. 34 p. (NICE guideline; no. 1). Available at: http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=48992#Section420. Accessed May 12, 2015.
- Reviewer: Kari Kassir, MD
- Review Date: 01/2015 -
- Update Date: 05/12/2015 -