(GERD—Infant; Chronic Heartburn—Infant; Reflux Esophagitis—Infant; Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease—Infant; GORD—Infant; Reflux—Infant)
|Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease|
|Food and acid back up into the esophagus from the stomach.|
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- Increased relaxation of the LES
- Problems with LES muscle tone
- Problems with the nerves that control the LES
- Delayed emptying of the stomach
- Genetics and family history
- Spitting up or vomiting
- Not growing or gaining weight
- Refusal to feed or difficulty feeding
- Irritability or fussiness during or after feeding
- Arching of back or other movements during or after feeding
- Regurgitation or bloody vomit
- Breathing problems, including during sleep (sleep apnea)
- Difficulty swallowing
- Frequent aspiration pneumonia or respiratory problems
- Cough or wheezing
- Disturbed sleep
- Excessive crying
- 24-hour pH monitoring—a probe is placed in the esophagus to keep track of the acid in the lower esophagus
- Short trial of medications—success or failure of medication may help your doctor understand the cause
- Try a hypoallergenic formula for 1-2 weeks. This formula has removed items linked with common allergic reactions.
- Provide small, frequent feedings.
- Thicken your baby’s formula or milk. Use rice, cereal or another thickening agent.
- Use a different pre-thickened formula.
- Burp your baby more often. For example, burp your baby every 1-2 hours after being fed.
- Make sure your baby is in an upright position during feeding. Keep your baby upright for 30 minutes after being fed.
- Keep a diary of your baby's symptoms.
- Ask your doctor about sleeping positions. These positions depend on your baby's age. Young babies should always be placed on their back because of the risk of sudden infant death syndrome.
- Keep your baby away from secondhand smoke.
- H-2 blockers
- Proton pump inhibitors
GI Kids—North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition http://www.gikids.org
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases http://www.niddk.nih.gov
Canadian Digestive Health Foundation http://www.cdhf.ca
About Kids Health—The Hospital for Sick Children http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in infants. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/digestive-diseases/ger-and-gerd-in-infants/Pages/facts.aspx. Updated February 21, 2012. Accessed May 10, 2013.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease in infants. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 22, 2012. Accessed May 10, 2013.
1/6/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Orenstein SR, McGowan JD. Efficacy of conservative therapy as taught in the primary care setting for symptoms suggesting infant gastroesophageal reflux. J Pediatr. 2008;152(3):310-314.
1/20/2015 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: Recognition, diagnosis and management in children and young people. January 2015. Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng1. Accessed January 20, 2015.
- Reviewer: Kari Kassir, MD
- Review Date: 01/2015 -
- Update Date: 01/20/2015 -