- Cranial Osteopathy
- Cranial-sacral Therapy
- Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.)
- Muscle Energy Technique
- Jones Counterstrain
- Myofascial Release
- Osteopathic Manipulation
- Osteopathic Medicine
Principle Proposed Uses
History of Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment
Forms of Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment
- High velocity, low amplitude (HVLA) technique
- Muscle energy technique
- Strain-counterstrain technique
- Myofascial release technique
- Osteopathy in the cranial field
High Velocity/Low Amplitude Technique (HVLA)
Muscle Energy Technique
Strain-counterstrain Technique (Jones Counterstrain)
Osteopathy in the Cranial Field
What Is Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment Used For?
What Is the Scientific Evidence for Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment?
Possible Effects of Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment
Finding a Qualified Practitioner of Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment
Safety of Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment
1 Knebl JA, Shores JH, Gamber RG, et al. Improving functional ability in the elderly via the Spencer technique, an osteopathic manipulative treatment: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Osteopath Assoc . 2002;102:387-396.
2 Gamber RG, Shores JH, Russo DP, et al. Osteopathic manipulative treatment in conjunction with medication relieves pain associated with fibromyalgia syndrome: results of a randomized clinical pilot project. J Am Osteopath Assoc . 2002;102:321-325.
3 Hoyt WH, Shaffer F, Bard DA, et al. Osteopathic manipulation in the treatment of muscle-contraction headache. J Am Osteopath Assoc . 1979;78:322-325.
4 Newswanger DL, Patel AT, Ogle A. Osteopathic medicine in the treatment of low back pain. Am Fam Physician . 2000;62:2414-2415.
5 Koes BW, Assendelft WJ, van der Heijden GJ, et al. Spinal manipulation for low back pain. An updated systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Spine . 1996;21:2860-2873.
6 Andersson GBJ, Lucente T, Davis AM, et al. A comparison of osteopathic spinal manipulation with standard care for patients with low back pain. N Engl J Med . 1999;341:1426-1431.
7 Noll DR, Shores JH, Gamber RG, et al. Benefits of osteopathic manipulative treatment for hospitalized elderly patients with pneumonia. J Am Osteopath Assoc . 2000;100:776-782.
8 Jarski RW, Loniewski EG, Williams J, et al. The effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative treatment as complementary therapy following surgery: a prospective, match-controlled outcome study. Altern Ther Health Med . 2000;6:77-81.
9 Radjieski JM, Lumley MA, et al. Effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment on length of stay for pancreatitis: a randomized pilot study. J Am Osteopath Assoc . 1998;98:264-272.
10 Knebl JA, Shores JH, Gamber RG, et al. Improving functional ability in the elderly via the Spencer technique, an osteopathic manipulative treatment: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Osteopath Assoc . 2002;102:387-396.
11 Hartman SE, Norton JM. Craniosacral therapy is not medicine. Phys Ther . 2002;82:1146-1147.
12 Korthals-de Bos IB, Hoving JL, van Tulder MW, et al. Cost effectiveness of physiotherapy, manual therapy, and general practitioner care for neck pain: economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial [electronic version]. BMJ . 2003;326:911.
13 Ventegodt S, Merrick J, Andersen NJ, et al. A Combination of Gestalt Therapy, Rosen Body Work, and Cranio Sacral Therapy did not help in Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders (WAD) - Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial. ScientificWorldJournal . 2005;4:1055-1068.
14 Licciardone JC, Stoll ST, Fulda KG, et al. Osteopathic manipulative treatment for chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Spine . 2003;28:1355-1362.
15 Wilson E, Payton O, Donegan-Shoaf L, Dec K. Muscle energy technique in patients with acute low back pain: a pilot clinical trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther . 2003;33:502-512.
16 Guiney PA, Chou R, Vianna A, et al. Effects of osteopathic manipulative treatment on pediatric patients with asthma: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Osteopath Assoc . 2005;105:7-12.
17 Nourbakhsh MR, Fearon FJ. The effect of oscillating-energy manual therapy on lateral epicondylitis: a randomized, placebo-control, double-blinded study. J Hand Ther. 2008;21:4-14.
18 Bergman GJ, Winters JC, Groenier KH, et al. Manipulative therapy in addition to usual care for patients with shoulder complaints: results of physical examination outcomes in a randomized controlled trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2010 Feb;33(2):96.
19 Castro-Sánchez AM, Matarán-Peñarrocha GA, Sánchez-Labraca N, et al. A randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of craniosacral therapy on pain and heart rate variability in fibromyalgia patients. Clin Rehabil. 2011;25(1):25-35.
20 French HP, Brennan A, White B, Cusack T. Manual therapy for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee - a systematic review. Man Ther. 2011;16(2):109-17.
21 Castro-Sánchez AM, Matarán-Peñarrocha GA, Arroyo-Morales M, Saavedra-Hernández M, Fernández-Sola C, Moreno-Lorenzo C. Effects of myofascial release techniques on pain, physical function, and postural stability in patients with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil. 2011;25(9):800-813
22 Ajimsha MS. Effectiveness of direct vs indirect technique myofascial release in the management of tension-type headache. J Bodyw Mov Ther 2011 Oct;15(4):431.
23 Zanotti E, Berardinelli P, Bizzarri C. Osteopathic manipulative treatment effectiveness in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a pilot study. Complement Ther Med. 2012;20(1-2):16-22.
24 Ramos-González E, Moreno-Lorenzo C, et al. Comparative study on the effectiveness of myofascial release manual therapy and physical therapy for venous insufficiency in postmenopausal women. Complement Ther Med. 2012 Oct;20(5):291-298.
25 Licciardone JC, Minotti DE, et al. Osteopathic manual treatment and ultrasound therapy for chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Am Fam Med 2013;11(2):122-129.
26 Moraska AF, Stenerson L, et al. Myofascial trigger point-focused head and neck massage for recurrent tension-type headache: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clin J Pain. 2015;31(2):159-168.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 09/2014 -
- Update Date: 03/19/2015 -