- Lymphoma—a cancer of the immune system; sometimes found in the stomach wall
- Gastric stomal tumors—tumors of the stomach wall
- Carcinoid tumors—tumors of the hormone-producing cells of the stomach
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- Age: over 50
- Gender: twice as common in men
- Geography: Japan, Korea, parts of Eastern Europe, and Latin America experience higher rates
- Race: higher rates in Hispanics and African-Americans
- Helicobacter pylori infection
- High intake of smoked, salted, pickled food and meat, high starch/low fiber foods
- Low intake of certain vegetables (eg, garlic scallions, onions, chives, leeks)
- Alcohol abuse
- Previous stomach surgery
- Pernicious anemia
- Ménétrier disease (a disease that causes large folds in the stomach lining)
- Barrett's esophagitis
- Blood type A
- Familial cancer syndromes: hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer and familial adenomatous polyposis
- Family history of stomach cancer
- Stomach polyps
- Indigestion, heartburn
- Abdominal pain or vague abdominal discomfort
- Nausea and vomiting
- Diarrhea or constipation
- Stomach bloating or sense of fullness after eating
- Loss of appetite
- Weakness, fatigue
- Bleeding in vomit or stool
- Stool that has turned black or tarry
- Unintended weight loss
- Fluid swelling in abdomen
- Blood tests
- Fecal occult blood test —to check for blood in the stool
- Upper GI series —a series of x-rays of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine)
- Endoscopy —a test that uses a fiberoptic scope to examine the esophagus (throat), stomach, and upper part of the small intestines
- Biopsy —removal of a sample of stomach tissue to test for cancer
- Ultrasound —a test that uses sound waves to examine the stomach
- CT scan —a type of x-ray that uses a computer to make pictures of structures inside the stomach
- PET scan —a test makes images that show activity in body tissues
- Endoscopic mucosal resection—This surgery is generally done in the early stages where the tumor is removed through an endoscope.
- Subtotal gastrectomy—This is the removal of the lower part of the stomach, leaving part of the stomach to reattached to the esophagus and small intestine.
- Total gastrectomy—This is the removal of the entire stomach. It often includes removal of nearby lymph nodes. The esophagus is attached directly to the small intestine.
- Avoid diets high in salted, pickled, and smoked foods.
- Eat at least five servings of fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grain foods a day.
- Limit red meat intake.
- Do not smoke.
- Do not drink alcohol.
American Cancer Society http://www.cancer.org/
National Cancer Institute http://www.nci.nih.gov/
BC Cancer Agency http://www.bccancer.bc.ca/default.htm/
Cancer Care Ontario http://www.cancercare.on.ca/
Cashen AF, Wildes TM. The Washington Manual; Hematology and Oncology Subspeciality Consult. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Wolter Kluwers; 2008.
Gastric cancer prevention. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.nci.nih.gov/cancerinfo/pdq/prevention/gastric/healthprofessional . Accessed May 7, 2003.
How is stomach cancer diagnosed? American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org . Accessed May 21, 2003.
Ménétrier disease. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse website. Available at: http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/menetrier/ . Updated November 2008. Accessed December 14, 2009.
What you need to know about stomach cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.nci.nih.gov . Accessed December 1, 2009.
4/29/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : Zhou Y, Zhuang W, Hu W, Liu GJ, Wu TX, Wu XT. Consumption of large amounts of allium vegetables reduces risk for gastric cancer in a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology. 2011 Apr 4. [Epub ahead of print]
- Reviewer: Igor Puzanov, MD
- Review Date: 09/2013 -
- Update Date: 09/30/2013 -