|Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands: Posterior (Back) View|
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- Removal of the parathyroid glands
- Underlying autoimmune disorders
- Absence of the parathyroid glands at birth
- Damage to the parathyroid glands
- Genetics conditions such as DiGeorge syndrome
- Magnesium deficiency due to alcoholism and/or malnutrition
- Other causes, such as metal overload from iron, magnesium, or aluminium
- Multiple autoimmune disorders
- Thyroid or parathyroid surgery
- Family history of hypoparathyroidism
- Blood tests
- Urine test
Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation
Hypoparathyroidism Association, Inc. http://www.hypoparathyroidism.org
National Organization for Rare Disorders http://www.rarediseases.org
Canadian Society of Endocrinology & Metabolism http://www.endo-metab.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Definition of hypoparathyroidism and related disorders. The Hypoparathyroidism Association website. Available at: https://www.hypopara.org/about-hpth/definition.html. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Hypoparathyroidism. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 2, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Hypoparathyroidism. National Organization for Rare Disorders website. Available at: http://www.rarediseases.org/rare-disease-information/rare-diseases/byID/703/viewFullReport. Updated April 2, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Marx SJ. Hyperparathyroid and hypoparathyroid disorders. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:1863.
Moffett JM, Suliburk J. Parathyroid autotransplantation. Endocr Pract. 2011 Mar-Apr;17 Suppl 1:83-89.
Testini M, Gurrado A, et al. Hypoparathyroidism after total thyroidectomy. Minerva Chir. 2007 Oct;62(5):409-415.
Thakker RV. Genetic developments in hypoparathyroidism. Lancet. 2001;357:974.
Winer KK, Ko CW, et al. Long-term treatment of hypoparathyroidism: a randomized controlled study comparing parathyroid hormone (1-34) versus calcitriol and calcium. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:4214-4220.
- Reviewer: Brian Randall, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014 -
- Update Date: 09/30/2014 -