(Sporadic Goiter; Simple Goiter; Nodular Enlargement of the Thyroid Gland)
- Diffuse—enlarging the whole thyroid gland
- Nodular—enlargement caused by nodules, or lumps, on the thyroid
|Goiter (Enlargement of the Thyroid Gland)|
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- Family history of goiters
- Regular use of medications such as lithium, propylthiouracil, phenylbutazone, or aminoglutethimide
- Taking a lot of substances (goitrogens) that inhibit production of thyroid hormone—common goitrogens include foods such as cabbage, turnips, Brussels sprouts, seaweed, and millet
- Iodine deficiency—Iodine deficiency is rare in the United States and other developed countries, due to the use of iodized table salt; this is a primary cause of goiter in other parts of the world, particularly in mountainous areas, or areas that experience heavy rainfall or flooding
- A diet low in iodine
- Family history of goiter
- History of radiation therapy to head or neck, especially during childhood
- Swelling of the neck
- Breathing difficulties, coughing, or wheezing with large goiter
- Difficulty swallowing with large goiter
- Feeling of pressure on the neck
- Blood tests
- Fine needle aspiration biopsy
Hormone Suppression Therapy
The American Thyroid Association http://www.thyroid.org
The Hormone Foundation http://www.hormone.org
The College of Family Physicians of Canada http://www.cfpc.ca
Thyroid Foundation of Canada http://www.thyroid.ca
Bonnema SJ, Bennedbek FN, et al. Management of the nontoxic multinodular goiter: a North American Survey. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:112-117.
Bonnema SJ, Nielsen VE, et al. Improvement of goiter volume reduction after 0.3 mg recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated radioiodine therapy in patients with a very large goiter: a double-blinded, randomized trail. J Clin Endo Metab. 2007;92:3424-3428.
Diehl LA, Garcia V, Bonnema SJ, et al. Management of the nontoxic multinodular goiter in Latin America: comparison with North America and Europe, an electronic survey. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:117-123.
Freitas JE. Therapeutic options in the management of toxic and nontoxic nodular goiter. Seminars in Nuclear Medicine. 2000;30:88-97.
Hurley DL, Gharib H. Evaluation and management of multinodular goiter. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 1996;29:527-540.
- Reviewer: Kim A. Carmichael, MD, FACP
- Review Date: 12/2014 -
- Update Date: 12/20/2014 -