|Mitral Valve Regurgitation|
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- Mitral valve prolapse—abnormal closure of the valve with protrusion of a leaflet tip backward into the left atrium, causing it to leak. This may be congenital or acquired.
- Rheumatic fever —infectious disease can afflict the inside of the heart, leading to scarring of the heart’s valves. Rheumatic fever used to be a common cause of mitral valve damage, but it is not common today in the United States.
- Heart attack —reduced blood supply to the heart can weaken the small muscles that hold the mitral valve in place, causing it to leak
- Congenital deformity—several different types of congenital heart defects distort the mitral valve
- Heart muscle disease—many types of disease can weaken the heart muscle, stretching out the mitral valve ring so that the valve no longer closes. Among these causes are alcohol, certain drugs, radiation , muscular dystrophies, malnutrition, cancer , and many inflammatory and metabolic disorders.
- A history of rheumatic fever or other serious infectious disease
- Inflammatory diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis
- Storage diseases such as hemochromatosis and glycogen storage disease
- Heart disease
- Muscle disease
- Radiation exposure
- Exposure to certain drugs such as lithium, sulfonamides, cancer chemotherapy , and phenothiazines
- Chronic, progressive fatigue
- Shortness of breath, especially with exertion
- Worsening shortness of breath when you lie down
- New associated palpitations or racing heart rate, which may suggest the development of an abnormal heart rhythm
Treat Underlying Disease
American Heart Association http://www.heart.org
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov
Canadian Cardiovascular Society http://www.ccs.ca
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada http://ww2.heartandstroke.ca
Braunwald E. Valvular heart disease. In: Isselbacher K, et al. (Eds). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 14th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1998.
Wood AJJ. Adverse reactions to drugs. In: Isselbacher K, et al. (Eds.) Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine . 14th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1998.
Wynne J, Braunwald E. The cardiomyopathies and myocarditides. In: Isselbacher K, et al. (Eds). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicinem . 14th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1998.