Eating disorders can be treated with the following interventions:
- Cognitive behavioral therapy
- Interpersonal therapy
- Group support
- Family therapy
- Hospitalization and nutritional therapy
Therapists can help you develop a healthier and more realistic self-image. They will help you find new ways to think about your body and yourself. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been especially successful when used for people who have bulimia and, along with medicine, has proven to be the most effective treatment for this condition. If you have bulimia, CBT may help you normalize your eating patterns, end binging and purging, and teach you to eat small amounts of food more regularly.
Interpersonal therapy may help you understand and cope with concerns about your relationships. It may help you cope with anxiety and depression that may occur with your eating disorder. It is also useful in addressing social factors that influence your eating behavior.
Interpersonal therapy can help you express your feelings, develop a stronger sense of individuality, cope with change, and address past trauma that might have played a role in your eating disorder.
There are many different types of groups for people with eating disorders. Groups may be part of an inpatient or outpatient program, be led by a private therapist, or exist independently. A therapist, recovered person, or other individual may lead support groups for people with eating disorders. Topics may include coping strategies, body image, nutrition information, spirituality, family issues, art therapy, or a combination of topics. CBT can be effectively conducted in a group session.
Complex family behaviors and attitudes often play a role in eating disorders. Many people cannot recover unless their families recognize their roles in the problem and make changes. Close family members need to understand the disorder and support the patient. Family therapy can play an important part in the treatment plan.
If you have severe weight loss associated with anorexia nervosa, you may be hospitalized. In most cases, people with bulimia do not have to be hospitalized unless they develop anorexia, have nutritional deficiences, need medications to withdraw from purging, or have major depression with suicidal thoughts. A component of successful treatment is the desire and willingness to change.
Generally, hospitalization for anorexia may be necessary if:
- Your weight is significantly below 15% of your ideal body weight
- You have signs of serious physical or emotional deterioration
Nutritional therapy is necessary for appropriate weight gain. The goal is to restore adequate nutrition, bring weight to a healthy level, and normalize eating patterns. This is done by:
- Structured and controlled weight gain targets.
- Progressive increases of food intake.
- Working one-on-one with a dietitian to help with meal planning so that all food groups are in adequate servings are eaten.
- Supplementing the diet with vitamins and minerals.
If anorexia is severe enough or the person refuses to eat, life-saving interventions may be used. A feeding tube is used to deliver nutrition. Feeding tubes may include a nasogastric tube or in extreme cases, a jejunostomy (J-tube) or gastrostomy tube (G-tube).
Psychotherapy is more effective after weight loss and malnutrition has been corrected.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 05/2016 -
- Update Date: 05/18/2016 -